Atrocities

Russians standing in their own graves

  • Armed conflicts often lead to excessive force, inhuman acts and atrocity.
  • Such actions by one combatant can lead to retaliatory action by the other.
  • The aftermath of such acts can fuel further conflict in the future.

Here are listed various atrocities and abuses of  (mainly gathered from Wikipedia) arising from conflicts since WW2.

 

Atrocities

>   IRAQ : Atrocities committed in Iraq, post Saddam Hussein .

>  ‘INDIAN’/INDIGENOUS PEOPLES: Atrocities in the US and American Civil War.

>  ISRAEL-PALESTINE : Atrocities attributed to Israeli and Palestinian/Arab forces

>  VIETNAM: Atrocities committed by US, South Vietnamese, South Korean, and North Vietnamese/Viet Cong, Kampuchean and French colonial forces.  

         >  The Mỹ Lai Massacre

         >  The Diên Niên - Phước Bình massacre

          >  Bình An massacre

          >  Hà My Massacre

          >  Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre

          >  Bình An / Tây Vinh massacre

         >  Vinh Xuan massacre

          >  Huế Massacre

          >  Đắk Sơn Massacre

          >  Ba Chúc Massacre.

          >  My Trach Massacre

          >  Bình Hòa Massacre

>  AFRICA - Rhodesia (Now Zimbabwe) Operation Dingo, also known as the Chimoio massacre, 

 

IRAQ: Atrocities committed in Iraq, post Saddam Hussein

July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrikes were a series of air-to-ground attacks conducted by a team of two United States Army AH-64 Apache helicopters in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, in the district of New Baghdad in Baghdad, during the Iraqi insurgency which followed the Iraq War. The attacks received worldwide coverage following the release of 39 minutes of classified cockpit gunsight footage in 2010.

In the first strike, the crew of the two Apaches directed 30mm cannon fire at a group of ten men in the path of advancing U.S. Army ground troops. According to the U.S. army, some were armed with RPGs, AKMs, some carried extra RPG warheads with no launcher, while others may have been unarmed. Witnesses interviewed directly afterward said that they saw no gunmen in the immediate area of the attack.[10] Among the group were two Iraqi war correspondents working for Reuters, Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen. Noor-Eldeen's camera was misidentified as an RPG pointed at U.S. soldiers when he attempted to photograph the soldiers moving toward the armed group while crouching behind a building. Seven men, including Noor-Eldeen were killed during this first strike.

The second strike, also using 30 mm rounds, was directed at a wounded Chmagh and two other unarmed men as they were attempting to help Chmagh into their van just before American soldiers arrived on the ground. Two children inside the van were wounded, the three men were killed, including Chmagh.

In a third strike the helicopter team fired three AGM-114 Hellfire missiles to destroy a building they believed was the source of enemy gunfire.

Reuters had unsuccessfully requested the footage of the airstrikes under the Freedom of Information Act in 2007. The footage was acquired from an undisclosed source in 2009 by the Internet leak website WikiLeaks, which released the footage on April 5, 2010, under the name Collateral Murder. Recorded from the gunsight Target Acquisition and Designation System of one of the attacking helicopters, the video shows the incident and the radio chatter between the aircrews and ground units involved. An anonymous US military official confirmed the authenticity of the footage.

 

back to top

 

‘INDIAN’/INDIGENOUS PEOPLES: Atrocities in the US and American Civil War

 Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them five miles westward (8 km) to Wounded Knee Creek, where they made camp.

The remainder of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arrived, led by Colonel James W. Forsyth and surrounded the encampment supported by four Hotchkiss guns.

On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry's opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow soldiers. The Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking soldiers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but U.S. cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed.

By the time it was over, at least 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded (4 men, 47 women and children, some of whom died later); some estimates placed the number of dead at 300. Twenty-five soldiers also died, and 39 were wounded (6 of the wounded would later die). At least twenty soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor.[8] In 2001, the National Congress of American Indians passed two resolutions condemning the awards and called on the U.S. government to rescind them.[9] The site of the battle has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

BOSTON MASSACRE – Five killed. The Boston Massacre was the killing of five colonists by British regulars on March 5, 1770. It was the culmination of tensions in the American colonies that had been growing since Royal troops first appeared in Massachusetts in October 1768 to enforce the heavy tax burden imposed by the Townshend Acts.Starting from the name itself, this landmark event of the American Revolution proved to be a magnet for popular myths and misconceptions.

It was not called the “The Boston Massacre” until many years after it occurred in 1773. The first popular name popularized by Paul Revere was The Bloody Massacre in King Street. In the early 1800's it was also called the State Street Massacre.

In many history books the dramatic shooting is described as the spark that ignited the Revolutionary War. Perhaps one of the reasons is the loss of human lives. In reality there were several other historic milestones although less dramatic, that moved Boston towards the revolution. Townshend Acts, Stamp Act and Boston Tea Party were some of them.

One of the most interesting myths is that the scuffle on King’s street started from the accusations thrown at one of the British officers that he did not pay the wigmaker’s bill. This makes an interesting story and many of us may speculate that perhaps the most famous protest would not have occurred if the bill had been paid on time. But on the contrary to the popular myth, the British officer Captain John Goldfinch in fact settled his bill the day earlier.

 

back to top

 

 ISRAEL-PALESTINE : Atrocities attributed to Israeli and Palestinian/Arab forces

Kfar Etzion massacre refers to a massacre that took place after a two-day battle between Jewish settlers and soldiers of Kibbutz Kfar Etzion and a combined force of the Arab Legion and Arab villagers, on May 13, 1948, the day before the Israeli Declaration of Independence. Of the 129 Haganah soldiers and Jewish combatant kibbutzniks who died during the defence of the settlement, Martin Gilbert states that fifteen were murdered on surrendering. Controversy surrounds the responsibility and role of the Arab Legion in the killing of those who surrendered. The official Israeli version maintains that the settlers and soldiers were massacred by villagers and the Arab Legion as they were surrendering. The Arab Legion version states that it arrived too late to prevent the villagers' onslaught, which was motivated by a desire to revenge the massacre of Deir Yassin, and the destruction of one of their villages several months earlier.[2] The surrendering fighters are said to have assembled in a courtyard, only to be suddenly fired upon, and that many died on the spot, while most of those who managed to flee were hunted down and killed.

Four prisoners survived the massacre and were transferred to Transjordan. Immediately following the surrender on May 13, the kibbutz was looted and razed to the ground.[3] The members of the three other kibbutzim of the Gush Etzion surrendered the next day and were taken as POWs to Jordan.

The bodies of the victims were left unburied until, one and a half years later, the Jordanian government allowed Shlomo Goren to collect the remains, which were then interred at Mount Herzl. The survivors of the Etzion Bloc were housed in former Arab houses in Jaffa.

Deir Yassin massacre took place on April 9, 1948, when around 120 fighters from the Irgun Zevai Leumi and Lohamei Herut Israel Zionist paramilitary groups attacked Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, a Palestinian Arab village of roughly 600 people. The assault occurred as Jewish militia sought to relieve the blockade of Jerusalem by Palestinian forces during the civil war that preceded the end of British rule in Palestine.

Around 107 villagers were killed during and after the battle for the village, including women and children—some were shot, while others died when hand grenades were thrown into their homes. Several villagers were taken prisoner and may have been killed after being paraded through the streets of West Jerusalem, though accounts vary. Four of the attackers died, with around 35 injured. The killings were condemned by the leadership of the Haganah—the Jewish community's main paramilitary force—and by the area's two chief rabbis. The Jewish Agency for Israel sent Jordan's King Abdullah a letter of apology, which he rebuffed.

The deaths became a pivotal event in the Arab–Israeli conflict for their demographic and military consequences. The narrative was embellished and used by various parties to attack each other—by the Palestinians against Israel; by the Haganah to play down their own role in the affair; and by the Israeli Left to accuse the Irgun and Lehi of violating the Jewish principle of purity of arms, thus blackening Israel's name around the world. News of the killings sparked terror within the Palestinian community, encouraging them to flee from their towns and villages in the face of Jewish troop advances, and it strengthened the resolve of Arab governments to intervene, which they did five weeks later.

 

back to top

 

VIETNAM: Atrocities committed by US, South Vietnamese, South Korean, and North Vietnamese/Viet Cong, Kampuchean and French colonial forces.  

There are a number of atrocities associate with the Vietnam War. Details of many of these are held in the files of the Vietnam War Crimes Working Group (VWCWG) - a Pentagon task force set up in the wake of the My Lai Massacre.

back to top

 

The Mỹ Lai Massacre  was the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. The massacre was later called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War". The incident prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge in November 1969. It is said that the massacre increased domestic opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War when the scope of killing and cover-up attempts were exposed. Initially, three U.S. servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and rescue the hiding civilians were shunned, and even denounced as traitors by several U.S. Congressmen, including Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Only thirty years later they were recognized and decorated, one posthumously, by the U.S. Army for shielding noncombatants from harm in a war zone.

As this incident retains such infamy we have included a full article which can be found here.

back to top

 

The Diên Niên - Phước Bình massacre was a massacre conducted by South Korean forces on October 9 and October 10, 1966, of 280 unarmed citizens in Tịnh Sơn village, Sơn Tịnh District, Quảng Ngãi Province in South Vietnam. The massacre was conducted in two hamlets in Tịnh Sơn village. One massacre was conducted in the Dien Nien Temple in Dien Nien hamlet, the second massacre was conducted in Phước Bình hamlet schoolyard. Most of the victims were children, elderly and women. The number of dead is given as 180 by Viet Nam News.

The South Korean forces conducted similar massacres in Bình An village, Bình Hòa village, Bình Tai village and Tây Vinh village in the same year.

Bình An massacre was a massacre conducted by the ROK Capital Division of the South Korean Army on 26 February 1966 of unarmed citizens in Gò Dài hamlet, and other places in what was then Bình An commune, today known as xã Tây Vinh, Tây Sơn District of Bình Định Province in South Vietnam. The Capital Division troops killed 380 villagers within an hour.

After the war the Gò Dài Memorial Tower for the victims was built in the village. The victims' names are listed on the stone monument.

 

back to top

 

Hà My Massacre was a massacre conducted by the South Korean Marines on 25 February 1968 of unarmed citizens in Hà My village, Quảng Nam Province in South Vietnam. The victims were 135 women, children and elders from the thirty households. After the massacre, the ROK Marines bulldozed a shallow grave and buried the victims' bodies en masse.

In December 2000, the Memorial for the 135 victims was founded in Hà My village.

 

back to top

 

Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre (Korean: 퐁니·퐁넛 양민학살 사건, Vietnamese: Thảm sát Phong Nhất và Phong Nhị) was a massacre conducted by the 2nd Marine Brigade of the South Korean Marines on 12 February 1968 of unarmed citizens in Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất village, Điện Bàn District of Quảng Nam Province in South Vietnam.

After the massacre, U.S. Marines and South Vietnamese Army soldiers reached the village later that day; they treated and transported the surviving villagers to nearby hospitals. When the massacre occurred, the Phong Nhi villagers had a close relationship with the U.S. Marines and the village men volunteered as South Vietnam Army soldiers. On February 25, the next massacre occurred in Hà Mỹ village. In 1969, one of the victims' families made a petition to the President of South Vietnam Parliament for compensation.

On 11 November 2000, former ROK Vietnam Expeditionary Forces Commanding Officer Lieutenant general Chae Myung-shin (ko) conceded that Chief of Staff of the United States Army General William Westmoreland demanded the investigation several times. Then South Korea replied that the massacre was a plot of the Viet Cong who wore the ROK Marine uniforms. On 10 January 1970, Colonel Robert Morehead Cook, United States Army inspector general reported the massacre was conducted by the South Korean Marines. Chae Myung-shin believed the cause of the massacre was conflicting perspectives between United States and South Korea, claiming the American forces lacked knowledge of guerrilla tactics.

 

back to top

 

Bình An / Tây Vinh massacre (Korean: 타이빈 양민 학살 사건) was a series of massacres conducted by the ROK Capital Division of the South Korean Army between February 12, 1966 and March 17, 1966, of 1,200 unarmed citizens in Bình An village, today Tây Vinh village, Tây Sơn District of Bình Định Province in South Vietnam. During the operation, the Capital Division assaulted 15 hamlets in Tây Vinh village. In the one hamlet, the ROK soldiers rounded up and shot 68 villagers. Only 3 villagers survived. The Capital Division carried out a similar massacre in Bình An village on 26 February 1966.

Vinh Xuan massacre was a massacre conducted by South Korean forces on the morning of May 22, 1967, resulting in the deaths of at least 15 unarmed citizens in Vinh Xuan village, Phú Yên Province in South Vietnam. The district was included in the operational area of the Green Dragon, Strong Tiger and White Horse. They used threats of violence and military force in order to move Bình Định, Quảng Ngãi and Phú Yên Province peasants beyond the reach and influence of the Viet Cong. Those areas' villagers consisted mostly of old men, women and children who refused to leave; subsequently, they were cruelly and systematically killed.

 

back to top

 

Huế Massacre (Vietnamese: Thảm sát tại Huế Tết Mậu Thân, or Thảm sát Tết Mậu Thân ở Huế, lit. translation: "Tet Offensive Massacre in Huế") is the name given to the summary executions and mass killings perpetrated by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army during their capture, occupation and later withdrawal from the city of Huế during the Tet Offensive, considered one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.

During the months and years that followed the Battle of Huế, which began on January 31, 1968, and lasted a total of 26 days, dozens of mass graves were discovered in and around Huế. Victims included women, men, children, and infants. The estimated death toll was between 2,800 to 6,000 civilians and prisoners of war. The Republic of Vietnam released a list of 4062 victims identified as having been either murdered or abducted. Victims were found bound, tortured, and sometimes buried alive. Many victims were also clubbed to death.

A number of U.S. and South Vietnamese authorities as well a number of journalists who investigated the events took the discoveries, along with other evidence, as proof that a large-scale atrocity had been carried out in and around Huế during its four-week occupation. The killings were perceived as part of a large-scale purge of a whole social stratum, including anyone friendly to American forces in the region. The Massacre at Huế came under increasing press scrutiny later, when press reports exposed that South Vietnamese "revenge squads" had also been at work in the aftermath of the battle, searching out and executing citizens that had supported the communist occupation.

 

back to top

 

Đắk Sơn Massacre was a massacre committed by the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War, in the village of Đắk Sơn, Đắk Lắk Province, South Vietnam.

On December 5, 1967, two battalions of Viet Cong systematically killed 252 civilians in a "vengeance" attack on the hamlet of Đắk Sơn, home to over 2,000 Montagnards, known for their fierce opposition to the Viet Cong. The Vietcong believed that the hamlet had at one point given aid to refugees fleeing Viet Cong forces.

Over 600 troops marched into the village, using flamethrowers to destroy the shelters and kill the men, women, and children who lived there.[2] As the Viet Cong fired their weapons, people were incinerated inside their own homes, and some who had managed to escape into foxholes in their homes died of smoke inhalation. The homes that were not destroyed by flamethrowers were destroyed with grenades, and on the way out patches of the main town were set afire. Just before they left the village, the Viet Cong shot 60 of the 160 survivors. Most of the remaining villagers were taken hostage.

 

back to top

 

Ba Chúc Massacre was carried out by the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army on April 18, 1978 in Ba Chúc, Tri Tôn, An Giang Province, southern Vietnam. Of those who had lived in Ba Chúc, 3,157 civilians were killed. Only two survived the massacre. The attack was one of the events that prompted the Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea.

 

back to top

 

My Trach Massacre (Vietnamese: Thảm sát Mỹ Trạch') was a massacre of Vietnamese civilians carried out by the French army during French colonial control of Vietnam. The massacre occurred in Mỹ Trạch village, Mỹ Thủy commune, Lệ Thủy District, Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam from 12 pm to 2 am on 29 November 1947. In this operation, 326 houses were burnt, many women were raped before being killed. Over 300 civilian residents in Mỹ Trạch were killed, of which 170 were women and were 157 children, many entire families were killed.

The location of the massacre was in the foot of Mỹ Trạch Bridge, a bridge on the North–South Railway, next to Mỹ Trạch Railway Station. The victims were forced to the foot of the bridge and lined up before being killed with machine gun fire.

Nearly half of the village residents were killed in this massacre. Every year, 29 November is mourned as “Hatred Date” of the residents in this village.

The memorial park in with the memorial site was located is classified by the Ministry of Culture of Vietnam as the National Historical Relics of Vietnam on 27 December 2001.[1]

 

back to top

 

Bình Hòa Massacre was a massacre conducted by the South Korean forces between December 3 and December 6, 1966, of 430 unarmed citizens in Bình Hòa village, Quảng Ngãi Province in South Vietnam.[1][3][4] The district was in the operational area of the Blue Dragon Brigade.[5] Most of the victims were children, elderly and women.[4] The victims included 21 pregnant women.[1] The South Korean soldiers burnt down all of the houses and killed hundreds of cows and buffalo after the atrocities.[1] Then the survivors joined the Viet Cong and fought against the United States and its Allies, one of which was South Korea.[1] [6] The South Korean forces conducted similar massacres in Binh Tai village, Bình An village and Tây Vinh village within the same year.[7][8]

 

back to top

 

AFRICA

Operation Dingo, also known as the Chimoio massacre in Rhodesia (Now Zimbabwe),

Was a major raid conducted by the Rhodesian Security Forces against the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) headquarters of Robert Mugabe at Chimoio and a smaller camp at Tembue in Mozambique from 23–25 November 1977. More than 3,000 ZANLA fighters were reported as killed and 5,000 wounded while only two government troops died and six were wounded.[1]

Ninety-six SAS and 48 Rhodesian Light Infantry (RLI) paratroopers and an additional 40 helicopter-borne RLI troops attacked the camps at 07h45 in the morning to exploit the concentration of forces on the parade ground for morning parade, directly after a strike by the Rhodesian Air Force's ageing Canberra and Hunter strike aircraft. To strike as many ground targets as possible, six mothballed Vampire jets dating from the 1940s were brought back into use for the operation.

A Douglas DC-8 airliner was flown over the Chimoio camps 10 minutes before the airstrike as part of a deception plan in which the insurgents were dispersed in a false air raid alert, so that when the aircraft participating in the actual airstrike approached, they did not cause alarm. When the first Air Force jets arrived, the assembled ZANLA forces, as planned, did not take cover again as they assumed it was the DC-8 that was returning.[2] In their first pass, four Canberra bombers dropped 1200 Alpha bombs (Rhodesian-designed anti-personnel cluster bombs) over an area 1.1 kilometres long and half a kilometre wide.[3]

Following the initial air strikes by the Canberras, Hunters and Vampire FB9's, ten Alouette III helicopter gunships ("K-Cars" in the attackers terminology) engaged opportunity targets in allocated areas that together inflicted the majority of the casualties, while 2 Vampire T11's flew top cover. The paratroopers and heliborne troops were deployed on three sides of the objective into various stop groups and sweep lines,[4] and were also effective in killing large numbers of fleeing ZANLA cadres. Nevertheless, the small size of the ground force and the lack of a complete envelopment allowed a number of fleeing ZANLA cadres to escape. Two important targets of the attack, ZANLA commanders Josiah Tongogara and Rex Nhongo escaped.

A "stay behind" force of SAS remained in ambush positions around the area overnight to wait for any ZANLA who might return; these SAS were then extracted by helicopter in the morning.[5] The Rhodesian force withdrew in good order having suffered one SAS member being shot and killed at Chimoio, and a Vampire pilot was killed trying to crash land his Vampire in a field after his plane was damaged by ground fire while overflying Vanduzi Crossroads on return to base and led to a partial loss of power. The pilot chose to attempt a forced landing rather than execute the dangerous act of abandoning the Vampire which was not fitted with an ejection seat.(18°57′14.5″S 33°15′49″E).[6]

Several tons of equipment were destroyed or captured and taken to Rhodesia.

A similar attack was repeated two days later at Tembue. (14°47′33″S 32°50′10″E). On that occasion the morning parade had been cancelled and the bomb strike on the parade ground ineffective. Though there was a Mozambique Liberation Front base nearby they did not interfere in the Rhodesian forces activities.

A new base was later built in the Chimoio area. This was attacked in 1978 in Operation Snoopy.

 

back to top